In circuit tests are applied during testing of electronic assemblies. In this test, populated assemblies are placed on an adapter specifically made for the board. Contacting is effected by gold-plated needles. The test is looking for defects in the tracks (discontinuities, shorts) and for the absence / presence of components on the board. To a certain extent, their function can be tested. From the sum of the findings, inferences are made on the function of the assembly.